Dr. Nicholas Dodman
The new wave of pet animal training focuses on positive or reward-based training only. The idea is to train your cat to perform certain desired behaviors rather than to punish unwanted behavior. For example, you would not train a cat to stop meowing by punishing the unwanted behavior. Instead you reward the silence. This strategy involves waiting until the meowing has stopped for at least three seconds and then giving a reward (a "primary reinforcer").
Timing of rewards is critical. If a cat stops meowing for 3 seconds and you have to reach into your pocket for a food treat and then walk toward the cat to deliver it, the moment may have passed. Yet it is difficult to have primary rewards (food, water, toys) handy at all times so how can this best be managed?
The answer is using a "secondary reinforcer," like praise or a neutral cue that signals that the primary reinforcer is due. For humans, money is a secondary reinforcer. It has little or no intrinsic value but signals to the recipient that they have performed well and that a reward (what the money buys) will be forthcoming. In time, money alone reinforces the behavior (work) but it must retain its value or its attraction will be lost (as in times of great inflation). In animal training, whistles and clicks have been used as secondary reinforcers, though you can also use your voice.
Clicks made by small plastic clickers are probably the best and most consistent way of marking the successful accomplishment of a behavior. Initially the click is meaningless but it doesn't take long for cats to realize that it signals something good. Teaching this association is termed "charging the clicker" - and it doesn't take long!
Now the clicker can be used to reward any desired behavior instantly, even from a distance. The complete behavior does not have to be performed spontaneously for a click/reward to be achieved. The desired behavior can be "shaped" in fairly short order by rewarding serial approximations to it.
For example, if you reward a step in the right direction, then two steps, then three, you will eventually have the cat literally where you want him. People can be click and treat trained, so can fish, marine mammals, zoo animals and horses. Engaging in clicker training is fun for the pet owner and the pet. It's constructive, produces rapid results, and the learning is indelible. What's more, click-treat-trained pets are more attuned to their owners, and bonding between a clicker trained pet and his owner is usually enhanced.
Clicker training doesn't mean you have to spend hours each day teaching yourself and your pet what to do a few minutes a day is all it takes. Treat yourself: Go out and buy a clicker kit and get started.
- Choose a quiet location where you can be alone and undisturbed with your cat.
- Have a supply of delicious food treats on hand, say in a bowl, but out of your cat's reach. The treats should be diced up into pea-sized chunks. For cats: cut-up Pounce® cat treats (of a favorite flavor) will often do.
- Hold the clicker in your hand.
Step 1.Pair a click with a reward for nothing at first, to associate a click with a treat. Click-treat; click-treat; and so on. By the end of this stage you should have your cat's undivided attention. Also, you should notice that your cat reacts to hearing the click with some anticipatory behavior (i.e. he has learned to associate the sound with the reward).
Step 2. Begin to click and treat only when the cat has engaged in some behavior that you've asked for. It is immediately acceptable as a finished behavior (such as sitting) and can approximate a reward with a behavior that you are trying to encourage ("shape"). For instance, your cat may take a pace or two toward you if you are trying to train him to come to you.
Step 3. When the cat is at a distance the food treat may be tossed in front of him following a click. You should vary the time between the click and treat from immediate to a second or two later.
The cat learns that if he performs a behavior you approve of he can make you click ... and that means food. He will try all kinds of ways to make you click when in "clicker mode." All you have to do is decide what you want to reward (and therefore promote) and what you prefer to ignore.
Sit: f your cat does not sit quickly enough so that you can click and reward him you can lure him into sitting. First, put a food treat in your closed hand and position your hand over the cat's head. As he shows interest in the enclosed treat gradually move your hand back over the cat's head so that, in the process of following it, the cat will naturally assume the sitting posture. The click and reward. It doesn't have to be a great sit at first just an excuse for a sit will be fine. You can refine the sit later by progressively raising on what will be clicked and rewarded. Remember that it is the click that signals the successful completion of any phase of the behavior not when the reward is given.
Down: Similar to training sit but with a different trajectory for the food lure. Show the cat your clenched fist containing the food treat. Slowly lower your fist toward the chest, between the elbows. The cat's head will follow so that he assumes a "hunkered over" posture. Next move your fist (still clenched) slowly away from the cat so that he slides forward... and down. Don't worry if it doesn't go fully according to plan at first. Remember to start by rewarding even approximations toward the desired behavior and progress to "shape" the complete behavior in stages.
Long Sit/Down: Once your cat has learned to sit or lie down in order to make you click you can start shaping the behavior toward longer durations of these behaviors. To accomplish this, do not click right away but rather delay the click and reward by a few seconds. The length of delay can be increased, clicking only once to signal the end of the required behavior. The cat will learn that if he sits or lies down for long enough a click and treat will eventually come.
Fading the Lure: Of course, you don't have to keep food in your clenched hand and wave it around forever in order to get your cat to perform. Once a behavior is occurring with the appropriate hand movements simply stop using them and wait for the response to occur without direction of the cat's own volition.
Come: Start by sitting on the floor or crouching down and calling your cat to you. Look enthusiastic and pat or scratch the floor in front of you. "Fluffy, come here, good boy." If Fluffy comes, click reward and move to another location. Repeat this exercise many times. If you have more than one person you can practice this recall among 2 or 3 people. Each one calls the cat in turn and whenever he responds to the call successfully click and treat.
- Never coerce the "come"
- Never punish or chastise an imperfect response
- Never call your cat for punishment
And remember, in order to solidify the response during every day life use the "come" command plus a click and treat for coming when you have anything special to offer to your cat like dinner, a special food treat or new toy.